A natural or human-made form of landscape, which constitutes a highly distinctive feature and thus dominates the entirety of a landscape composition.

The Eiffel Tower, Paris. by B.F.©

According to the anthropological and phenomenological theories, a road is a trace of the human (or non-human) that allows for and determines a topographical experience.

A path in winter, environs of Lednogóra. by B.F.©

In Greek ὁρίζωνκύκλος [horizōnkyklos] a separating circle, a line of apparent contact between the sky and land.

The Baltic Sea. by M.S.©
Archaeological landscape

An archaeological landscape is understood as the way in which landscape was shaped, used and inhabited by humans in the past.

The Archaeological Park in Soluntum, Sicily. by M.St.©
Aesthetic landscape

An aesthetic landscape — a natural or cultural landscape which is present in the aesthetic experience and is valued from the standpoint of aesthetic categories.

Sunset at the Lednica Lake. by B.F.©
Historical landscape

A historic landscape is an element of the cultural heritage; it is linked to memory and endows people with a sense of identity while providing a network of references for many social groups.

A medieval church in Reszel. by M.St.©
Industrial landscape

An industrial landscape is understood either as one which mirrors the technological and cultural development, or as a degraded natural environment.

A historical railway station in Budapest. by Ł.P.©
Cultural landscape

A cultural landscape refers to an environment that was physically, materially or symbolically transformed by the human, and thus possesses traits illustrating how the changes proceeded over time.

The ethnographic reserve in Dziekanowice. by B.F.©

An cityscape is understood as a type of cultural landscape in which one finds urban and architectural features, as well as greenery.

Copenhagen. by B.F.©
Natural landscape

A natural landscape may be seen as identical with nature in its wild state, or nature that was changed by the human.

White dunes in Patara, Turkey. by Ł.P.©
Landscape - palimpsest

In the context of landscape studies, palimpsest refers to the multilayered symbolical and physical structure of a landscape.

Warsaw. by M.S.©
Landscape of memory

A memoryscape reflects that which is important for the local communities, whereby it expresses or erases a memory through or within the landscape, through introduction or removal of monuments, on-site celebrations.

Birkenau. by Ł.P.©
Agricultural landscape

An agricultural landscape is a type of a landscape that developed in the course of human agricultural activities. It is linked to countryside as a site of resources, as well as an idyllic myth.

Straw in a field. by B.F.©
Sacred landscape

A sacred landscape constitues one of the earliest types of cultural landscapes; it is connected with human spiritual needs and characterized by symbolism.

Jerusalem. by Ł.P.©
Touristic landscape

A touristic landscape is typified by the presence of picturesque views; at the same time, it is a component of the mass-tourism.

Copenhagen. by B.F.©
Endangered landscape

An endangered landscape is threatened by destruction, decay or total annihilation. Its revival would be/is difficult or impossible. It is protected under law because of natural assets, as well as cultural, social or/and historical values.

A lake that was created in an artificial basin. Geopark Łuk Mużaków. by B.F.©
The Picturesque

The Picturesque is an aesthetic category which denotes the ways of representing nature in art and literature, as well as an artful mode of experiencing nature and landscape.

Stowe Landscape Gardens. by B.F.©

A site found ina physical, geographical, anthropological or imaginary location which carries meaning, be it cultural, historical, symbolical or emotional.

The Red Square, Moscow. by B.F.©

A garden is an assigned place, where the human domesticates and subordinates nature. Nature, in this sense, performed varied functions (aesthetic, recreational, economical) and possesses different meanings (cultural, social, political).

Mainau Island on the Lake Constance (Bodensee). by B.F.©

An area surrounding a place with which it is intimately linked, having been established by human activity.

Surroundings of the Lednica Lake. by B.F.©
Memory of landscape

The memory of landscape represents an interpretative approach that sets out from the standpoint of remembering and forgetting, processes taking place in the cultural and social reality which leave a symbolical or material trace on the cultural landscape.

The pyramid-like tomb of Prince Pückler and the tomb of his wife Lucie, Branitz Park. by M.S.©

A park is rooted in the landscape style of gardening which developed in 18th-century England, and became widespread in 19th-century Europe. Initially an elaborate feature attached primarily to large countryside estates.

Stowe Landscape Gardens. by B.F.©
Natural monument

A natural monument, i.e. individual shrubs, trees or groups of tress, as well as monumental alleys, typified by old age, imposing dimensions, unorthodox shapes, or other distinctive features.

Mużaków Park. by B.F.©

Space is construed as an unconstrained expanse or its demarcated fragment; an open area undisturbed by other elements.

Lysefjorden, Norway. by M.S.©
Point of view

A viewpoint is a place from which one can observe a picturesque view or a particular element of the landscape.

A view from Pico Ruivo, Madera. by M.St.©
Reconstruction of a landscape

A reconstruction of a past/bygone landscape which was destroyed or changed.

Giecz, a reconstruction of an early-Slavic settlement. by B.F.©

Topography describes features that are characteristic for a certain site: the fauna, human activity or local culture.

A view on the Dead Sea and Jordan. by Ł.P.©

A tourist is a person who travels for his/her own pleasure, to relax or to know more. A tourist mostly chooses organized and group tours, both local or abroad. He/she visits places that are considered tourist destinations and offer entertainment.

York. by B.F.©

A wanderer is a type of traveller who journeys on foot to a non-specified destination. A wanderer is believed to be a nomad, as their route their home is.

A park in Belgrade. by Ł.P.©

A view is a particular, separated fragment of a landscape which is usually considered impressive; also, a visual experience of space and place.

The Lake of Eastern Fortune, China. by M.G.©

Wilderness is defined as a place that is beyond human control; a landscape that is biologically and ecologically untouched by human.

Bieszczady Kłeckoskie near Gniezno. by B.F.©

Dwelling refers to the way people experience landscape, including the modes of dwelling in the world, changing and exploiting the land, or developing industry.

Tai O, a village on the Lantau Island, China. by M.G.©